Jenis-jenis Teks Dan Hubungan antara Tujuan Menggunakan Bahasa


No.              TUJUAN MENGGUNAKAN BAHASA                                    JENIS TEKS
1. Menceritakan (to tell) sebuah
cerita/kisah sebagai cara memaknai
peristiwa (events) dan kejadian
(happenings) di dunia, baik untuk menghibur
maupun memberi tahu                                                                                  Naratif
2. Menyusun kembali (to reconstruct)
pengalaman masa lalu dengan menceritakan kembali
peristiwa dan kejadian (incidents) tersebut                                             Rekon
3. Menghadirkan (to present) informasi
fakta tentang kelas sesuatu dengan cara
menggolong-golongkan dan memerikan ciri-cirinya                             Laporan Informasi
4. Menghadirkan (to present) informasi dan
opini lebih dari satu sudut pandang dan biasanya
diakhiri dengan rekomendasi atas dasar bukti yang
dihadirkan                                                                                                      Diskusi
5. Menjelaskan (to explain) mengapa
benda-benda itu “seperti itu” dan bagaimana
benda itu berjalan                                                                                        Eksplanasi
6. Memberi (to advance) dan membenarkan (to justify)
sebuah argumen atau mengemukakan (to put forward)
sebuah sudut pandang tertentu                                                               Eksposisi
7. Menunjukkan (to show) bagaimana sesuatu
dapat dikerjakan/ diselesaikan melalui rangkaian
tahapan atau tindakan yang dapat diambil/dilakukan                        Prosedur

  1. Teks Naratif

Fitur-fitur Struktural
1 . ORIENTASI

THE FLOOGLEBOOGY

  1. KOMPLIKASI

One day a monster came out of my hot water pipe.
(munculnya persoalan; dalam banyak teks orientasi dan
komplikasi sering sama)
3. URUTAN PERISTIWA

I was very frigtened. I called my mum and she
came and saw the Floogleboogy and ran outside.
4. RESOLUSI
I wanted to make friends with it and give it a name so
I called it a Floogleboogy and that night it came to bed with me.
5. KOMENTAR

And I found that a Floogleboogy snores very loud indeed
and mum was too frightened to come and kiss me goodnight.
6. KODA (pilihan)
2. Teks Rekon

Fitur-fitur Struktural
1. Orientasi THE FERRY TRIP
One Tuesday we went on a harbour cruide.
2. Peristiwa dalam urutan kronologis We went underneath                                                      the harbour bridge and then we went past some                                                        submarines. When we got to Clifton Gardens we had a picnic.
After we had finished we played on the climbings.
Then Mr Robinson came over and said Mr Moses was
giving out frozen oranges.
Then after we finished that we went home.
3. KOMENTAR PRIBADI (pilihan)
3. Teks Laporan Informasi

Fitur-fitur Struktural
1. PERNYATAAN PEMBUKA
DROUGHT.YANG BERSIFAT UMUM ATAU KLASIFIKASI
Droughts are extreme water shortages that last for a long time.

2.URUTAN PERNYATAAN YANG SALING TERKAIT
(dikelompokkan menurut topiknya)
Rain falls at a different rate in different areas of Australia. Droughts occur when the average rainfall drops below what is expected for that area
and stays there for an extended time.
What would be a normal rainfall in Alice Springs would be a drought in                      Sydney. There are more droughts in the drier interior areas of Australia                      than in the coastal areas.
The inland areas have more dramatic changes in rainfall.
Droughts from the past can be seen in the rings made on trees as they
grow wood each year.
In wet years the layer of wood is thick, in dry years the layer
of wood is thin.
3. PERNYATAAN SIMPULAN (pilihan) No-one can predict
when droughts will occur in the future.

  1. Teks Diskusi

Fitur-fitur Struktural
1. PERNYATAAN (pertanyaan tentang suatu persoalan atau isu)
THE CHANGING CLIMATE
Many people have strong views about our changing weather.
2. ARGUMEN MENDUKUNG
In 1977, a group of people discovered there is a hole in the layer of gas
called ozone over the Antartic. Since 1989 the presence of a second hole over the
Artic has been confirmed. Some scientists feel alarmed because the ozone
layer is the earth’s giant shield against ultra violet radiation and for millions                        of years it has remained unbroken.
In addition some people believe that global warming is creating climatic problems.
3.ARGUMEN
These people are worried that the waste gases we are sending in the atmosphere are trapping heat around the earth and keeping it too warm. Some meterologists predict the world will warm between 2—4 degrees celcius by the year 2030. They believe polar ice   will melt and rainfall, sea levels and temperatures will be affected.On the other hand,  some people disagree with the theory that human activity is having an effect on the world’s climate. They believe that the world’s climate has gone through many changes since the Earth and its atmosphere first formed.
4. UMUMNYA DIAKHIRI DENGAN OPINI UNTUK DIPERTIMBANGKAN ATAU REKOMENDASI
In summary, there appears to be enough evidence to warrant a concern that Earth’s atmosphere is being changed by humans and that future changes in the weather will be more than minor fluctuations. Scientists need to monitor the Earth’s atmosphere and each human being needs to take positive steps towards caring for the air, water and plant life that influence our world’s weather.

  1. TEKS EKSPLANASI

Fitur-fitur Struktural
1. PERNYATAAN PENGANTAR
HOW DOES EATING HELP YOUR BODY?

  1. PERNYATAAN UMUM (tentang fenomena yang dijelaskan)
    Your food goes down a tube called the oesophagus

  2. PENJELASAN YANG DIRANGKAIKAN
    The oesophagus leads from the throat to the stomach. The digestive juice digests it
    so litle that you can’t see it all, so it can go into the blood. The white blood
    cells kill all the germs in your body and the cells can’t fight them all at once.
    You’ll need to take some medicine to help them.
    When our blood runs out of oxigen the blood goes back to your heart and new blood
    goes round your body and it’s more bright and clean than old blood.
    4 SIMPULAN (eksplanasi fenomena)

  3. Teks Eksposisi

Fitur-fitur Struktural
1. PERNYATAAN POSISI
A GOOD TEACHER
A good teacher needs to be understanding to all children.

2.JUSTIFIKASI ARGUMEN(seperangkat argumen yang didukung bukti)
He or she must also be fair and reasonable. The teacher must work at a sensible
pace and not one thing after another. The teacher also needs to speak with a clear
voice so the children can understand. If the children have worked hard during
the week there should be some fun activities.
3. RINGKASAN(pernyataan kembali rekomendasi posisi penulis)
That’s what I think a good teacher should be like.

  1. Prosedur

Fitur-fitur Struktural
1. PERNYATAAN MAKSUD ATAU TUJUAN
RECIPE FOR STICKY DATE PUDDING
2. BAHAN-BAHAN YANG DIPERLUKAN
Ingredients:200 g dates1 cup water60 g butler2 eggs190 g white sugar190 g
SR flour1 tsp bicarb soda½ tsp vanilla essencepinch of ginger
Equipment:small saucepanwooden spoon16cm
round or ring panbaking paper
3. TAHAPAN ATAU TINDAKAN (dalam urutan)
Method:
Put dates and water in saucepan, and heat until jammy.Beat in other
ingredients.Line pan with greased baking paper.Bake at 190 C for 30 minutes.
Serve with warm caramel sauce and cream.

Jenis Teks

  1. Teks sastra
    naratif
    Puisi

  2. Teks faktual
    laporan, rekon, prosedur, eksposisi, eksplanasi, deskrpisi, respon, diskusi

1). Teks Sastra

1 naratif                               Puisi
novel                                  sonnet
short story                        haiku
legend,                                song,
science fiction,                  limerick,
fantasy,                              jingle,
fable,                                 epic,
cartoon,                            ballad
stage play,                        myth
film script,                        lyric
television script,             verse,
radio script,
role play

2). Teks Faktual

No Jenis Teks Contoh
1 Laporan  : Buku referensi

2 Rekon        : Jurnal

3 Prosedur      :  Perintah
4 Eksposisi      :  Iklan
5 Eksplanasi   :  Tulisan ilmiah
6 Deskriptif     :  observasi
7 Respon          :  Reviu buku
8 Diskusi         :   Debat

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